Culture and Eating Disorders
Culture and Eating Disorders
Culture has been identified as one of the etiological factors leading to the development of eating disorders. Rates of these disorders appear to vary among different cultures and to change across time as cultures evolve. Additionally, eating disorders appear to be more widespread among contemporary cultural groups than was previously believed.
Anorexia nervosa has been recognized as a medical disorder since the late 19th century, and there is evidence that rates of this disorder have increased significantly over the last few decades. Bulimia nervosa was only first identified in 1979, and there has been some speculation that it may represent a new disorder rather than one that was previously overlooked (Russell, 1997).
However, historical accounts suggest that eating disorders may have existed for centuries, with wide variations in rates. Long before the 19th century, for example, various forms of self-starvation have been described (Bemporad, 1996). The exact forms of these disorders and apparent motivations behind the abnormal eating behaviors have varied.
The fact that disordered eating behaviors have been documented throughout most of history calls into question the assertion that eating disorders are a product of current social pressures. Scrutiny of historical patterns has led to the suggestion that these behaviors have flourished during affluent periods in more egalitarian societies (Bemporad, 1997). It seems likely that the sociocultural factors that have occurred across time and across different contemporary societies play a role in the development of these disorders.
Sociocultural Comparisons Within America
Several studies have identified sociocultural factors within American society that are associated with the development of eating disorders. Traditionally, eating disorders have been associated with Caucasian upper-socioeconomic groups, with a "conspicuous absence of Negro patients" (Bruch, 1966). However, a study by Rowland (1970) found more lower- and middle-class patients with eating disorders within a sample that consisted primarily of Italians (with a high percentage of Catholics) and Jews. Rowland suggested that Jewish, Catholic and Italian cultural origins may lead to a higher risk of developing an eating disorder due to cultural attitudes about the importance of food.
More recent evidence suggests that the pre-valence of anorexia nervosa among African-Americans is higher than previously thought and is rising. A survey of readers of a popular African-American fashion magazine (Table) found levels of abnormal eating attitudes and body dissatisfaction that were at least as high as a similar survey of Caucasian women, with a significant negative correlation between body dissatisfaction and a strong black identity (Pumariega et al., 1994). It has been hypothesized that thinness is gaining more value within the African-American culture, just as it has in the Caucasian culture (Hsu, 1987).
Other American ethnic groups also may have higher levels of eating disorders than previously recognized (Pate et al., 1992). A recent study of early adolescent girls found that Hispanic and Asian-American girls showed greater body dissatisfaction than white girls (Robinson et al., 1996). Furthermore, another recent study has reported levels of disordered eating attitudes among rural Appalachian adolescents that are comparable to urban rates (Miller et al., in press). Cultural beliefs that may have protected ethnic groups against eating disorders may be eroding as adolescents acculturate to mainstream American culture (Pumariega, 1986).