The gloom of winter, more often a literary theme than a medical
topic, is a biological reality for an estimated 10 million Americans
who suffer from seasonal affective disorder (SAD). For some, however,
the depression ushered in by the dark days of winter can be treated
simply and with rapid results with 30 minutes to two hours of
bright-light therapy per day for a few weeks.
Recently, the possible causes of and treatments for SAD were explored
at a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) press briefing
and in the Dec. 8, 1993, issue of JAMA.
At the press briefing, a panel of experts discussed the symptoms
of SAD, its effects on 35 million Americans (10 million with SAD
and 25 million with subsyndromal SAD or "winter blues")
and the available treatments. Among the experts were Alan I. Leshner,
Ph.D., deputy director of NIMH; Norman E. Rosenthal, M.D., chief
of the section on environmental psychiatry, NIMH's Clinical Psychobiology
Branch; and M. Lawrence Nicodemus, meteorologist, U.S. Department
of Commerce's National Climatic Data Center.
NIMH conducted the briefing to focus attention on SAD's widespread
prevalence and to encourage the medical community to take the
disorder seriously and to recognize its scientific credibility.
"SAD is real and treatable," explained Leshner, who
cited the JAMA article as a "milestone of recognition."
SAD has come to light as a widespread form of severe depression
largely because of the efforts of Rosenthal, a psychiatrist, director
of light therapy studies at NIMH and author of the JAMA
article. Rosenthal, a native South African who came to NIMH as
a researcher in the late 1970s, wrote Winter Blues, in
which he chronicles for patients the discovery, diagnosis and
treatment of SAD.
SAD is a clinical illness characterized by periods of depression
that begin in October and subside in April. SAD symptoms in adults
include lethargy, fatigue, ravenous appetite, weight gain, carbohydrate
craving, withdrawal from relationships, inability to concentrate
or focus, problems at work, anxiety and despair. Diagnosis is
based on seasonality of symptoms determined in a patient history.
Most (75 percent to 80 percent) of SAD sufferers are women, for
whom the illness typically begins in the third decade of life.
SAD also has been observed in children, who may exhibit signs
of irritability, difficulty getting out of bed and problems in
school, particularly during the fall and winter. The prevalence
of SAD in the United States has been found to increase with increasing
latitude and has been estimated to range from 1.4 percent in Florida
to 9.7 percent in New Hampshire.
While climate, season and weather have historically been known
to affect mood, only within the last decade have scientists documented
and measured this effect, according to Nicodemus. In addition
to latitude, storm patterns and cloud cover contribute to winter
dreariness and exacerbate SAD in some parts of the country, particularly
the Great Lakes region. People living in the Southeast and Southwest
have twice as much sunshine in winter as people in Northern states,
The threshold of light that elicits depression varies for individuals,
Rosenthal said. One person may develop SAD in Maryland but not
in Florida. Another may become depressed in Maine but not in Maryland.
A female SAD patient who attended the NIMH meeting told Psychiatric
Times of her 10-year use of light therapy and her sensitivity
to light variation. Although aware of her vulnerability, she apparently
enjoyed testing her limits. With a sense of humor, she told of
her cruises to see the Arctic's midnight sun and to the tip of
South America during the Southern Hemisphere's winter. During
the trips she recorded a mood log that revealed her rapid mood
swings as the cruise ships' routes created dramatic seasonal changes.
Treatment is based on the interaction of light with the eyes,
not the skin, Rosenthal said. Imagining light during meditation
has no effect. Light therapy regulates brain chemistry by controlling
the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin and the hormone melatonin,
Rosenthal believes. While serotonin regulation may be abnormal,
its abnormality seems to be a decreased responsiveness to light
that can be corrected with more light, said Rosenthal. The light
effect is probably transmitted via the nerve tract that connects
the retina to the hypothalamus' suprachias-matic nuclei, considered
the body's biological clock. He hypothesizes that SAD patients,
with a couple of weeks of insufficient light, produce inadequate
serotonin, which leads to their depression. Light therapy increases
In a recent article in the Journal of Biological Psychiatry,
Rosenthal and his coworkers documented an exaggerated behavioral
response in SAD patients administered an experimental serotonin
agonist (m-CPP). SAD patients had increased activation and euphoria.
This also correlated with SAD patients' reported activation following
a high-carbohydrate meal. In contrast, control subjects report
feeling sedated. The "aberrant response may reflect serotonergic
dysregulation...and may reflect a behavioral attempt to normalize
this putative serotonergic abnormality," Rosenthal and coauthors
1. Rosenthal NE. Diagnosis and treatment of seasonal affective
disorder. JAMA. Dec. 8, 1993; 270:2717-2720.
2. Rosenthal NE. Winter Blues. New York: Guilford Press;
3. Rosenthal NE, et al. Seasonal variation in behavioral responses
to m-CPP in patients with seasonal affective disorder and controls.
J Biol Psychiatry. 1993;33:496-504.