Clinicians who treat children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face a challenging conundrum. Although our understanding of ADHD and its evidence-based treatments has increased… Read More
In 1998 secretin, a gastrointestinal hormone, was suggested as an effective treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) based on anecdotal evidence.|To assess whether intravenous secretin improves the core features of ASD, other aspects of behaviour or function such as self-injurious behaviour, and the quality of life of affected individuals and their carers. We also assessed whether secretin causes harm. This is an updated version of our review of this topic originally published in 2005.|We searched CENTRAL (2010 Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to January 2010) , EMBASE (1980 to 2010 Week 2), PsycINFO (1806 to 2010 Week 2), CINAHL (1938 to January 2010), ERIC (1966 to January 2010), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to January 2010). Sociofile and HealthStar were searched in March 2005 when this review was first published, but were not available for this update. Records were limited to studies published since 1998 as this is when secretin was first proposed as a possible treatment for ASD. We
Mumps, measles and rubella (MMR) are serious diseases that can lead to potentially fatal illness, disability and death. However, public debate over the safety of the trivalent MMR vaccine and the resultant drop in vaccination coverage in several countries persists, despite its almost universal use and accepted effectiveness.|To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects associated with the MMR vaccine in children up to 15 years of age.|For this update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, PubMed (July 2004 to May week 2, 2011) and Embase.com (July 2004 to May 2011).|We used comparative prospective or retrospective trials assessing the effects of the MMR vaccine compared to placebo, do nothing or a combination of measles, mumps and rubella antigens on healthy individuals up to 15 years of age.|Two review authors independently
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined on a clinical basis by impairments in social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviours. Voxel based morphometry (VBM), a technique that gives a probabilistic measure of local grey matter (GM) and white matter concentration, has been used to study ASD patients: modifications in GM volume have been found in various brain regions, such as the corpus callosum, brainstem, amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellum. However, the findings are inconsistent with respect to the specific localisation and direction of GM modifications, and no paper has attempted to statistically summarise the results available in the literature.|The present study is a quantitative meta-analysis of the current VBM findings aimed at delineating the cortical regions with consistently increased or reduced GM concentrations. The activation likelihood estimation (ALE) was used, which is a quantitative voxel based meta-analysis method
Advanced paternal age has been suggested as a risk factor for autism, but empirical evidence is mixed. This study examines whether the association between paternal age and autism in the offspring (1) persists controlling for documented autism risk factors, including family psychiatric history, perinatal conditions, infant characteristics and demographic variables; (2) may be explained by familial traits associated with the autism phenotype, or confounding by parity; and (3) is consistent across epidemiological studies. Multiple study methods were adopted. First, a Swedish 10-year birth cohort (N=1075588) was established. Linkage to the National Patient Register ascertained all autism cases (N=883). Second, 660 families identified within the birth cohort had siblings discordant for autism. Finally, meta-analysis included population-based epidemiological studies. In the birth cohort, autism risk increased monotonically with increasing paternal age. Offspring of men aged 50
Using guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group, we systematically reviewed the literature on neonatal jaundice (unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in term and preterm infants. Thirteen studies were included in a meta-analysis. Most used retrospective matched case-control designs. There was significant heterogeneity (Q=31, p=0.002) and no evidence of publication bias (p=0.12). Overall, jaundice, assessed by total serum bilirubin (TSB), was associated with ASD (OR, 1.43, 95% CI 1.22-1.67, random effect model). This association was not found in preterms (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.38-1.02) but deserves further investigation since other measures of bilirubin such as unbound unconjugated bilirubin may be better predictors of neurotoxicity than TSB in preterms.
23403688 2013 02 13 2013 02 19 1538-3598 309 6 Feb 13 JAMA 611-3 10.1001/jama.2013.198 Berry Robert J RJ Crider Krista S KS Yeargin-Allsopp Marshalyn M eng Comment Editorial Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484
Prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in children, but it has not been determined whether they protect against other neurodevelopmental disorders.|To examine the association between maternal use of prenatal folic acid supplements and subsequent risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified [PDD-NOS]) in children.|The study sample of 85,176 children was derived from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The children were born in 2002-2008; by the end of follow-up on March 31, 2012, the age range was 3.3 through 10.2 years (mean, 6.4 years). The exposure of primary interest was use of folic acid from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after the start of pregnancy, defined as the first day of the last menstrual period before conception. Relative risks of ASDs were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs in a logistic regression
PTEN gene (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten, MIM 601628) is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS) including Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome and Proteus-like syndrome. PTEN mutations have been more recently reported in children with macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorders or mental retardation, without other symptoms of PHTS. Although tumor risk has not been evaluated in these patients and their relatives, the same surveillance as for Cowden syndrome is usually proposed. We report a family including patients carrying a novel PTEN mutation and presenting with a mild phenotype consisting of macrocephaly, hypotonia during the first year of life and mild learning disabilities, without autistic features. None of these patients exhibited PTHS-related symptoms such as tumors, lipomas, vascular malformations or pigmented macules of the glans penis. This report raises the question of extending the indications of
23157461 2012 12 17 2013 02 19 1469-8749 55 1 Jan Dev Med Child Neurol 13-4 10.1111/dmcn.12042 Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Center, The Alfred and Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic., Australia. Enticott Peter G PG
The mirror mechanism allows the direct translation of a perceived (seen, felt, heard) action into the same motor representation of its related goal. This mechanism allows a direct comprehension of others' goals and motor intentions, enabling an embodied link between individuals. Because the mirror mechanism is a functional expression of the motor system, these findings suggest the relevance of the motor system to social cognition. It has been hypothesized that the impaired understanding of others' intentions, sensations, and emotions reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be linked to an alteration of the mirror mechanism in all of these domains. In this review, we address the theoretical issues underlying the social impairments in ASD and discuss them in relation to the cognitive role of the mirror mechanism.
Develop algorithms for the differential diagnosis of LGS in pediatric patients. ... Target Audience. This activity has been designed to meet the educational needs of pediatric neurologists and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of
Five Steps to Improving Patient Access Judy Capko, May 21, 2013 Patient access is getting increased attention through reform initiatives. Here are five steps you can take to make sure patients get appropriate access to care in your office.