Clinicians who treat children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face a challenging conundrum. Although our understanding of ADHD and its evidence-based treatments has increased… Read More
Atypical antipsychotic agents are widely used psychopharmacological interventions for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among the atypical antipsychotic agents, risperidone has demonstrated considerable benefits in reducing several behavioral symptoms associated with ASDs. This meta-analysis examined research regarding the effectiveness of risperidone use among children with ASD using articles published since the year 2000.|The database for the analyses comprised 22 studies including 16 open-label and six placebo-controlled studies. Based on the quality, sample size, and study design of studies prior to 2000, the database was then restricted to articles published after the year 2000. Effect sizes were calculated for each reported measure within a study to calculate an average effect size per study.|The mean effect size for the database was 1.047 and the sample weighted mean effect size was 1.108, with a variance of 0.18.|Outcome measures demonstrated mean improvement in problematic
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive developmental disorders with characteristic core symptoms such as impairments in social interaction, deviance in communication, repetitive and stereotyped behavior, and impaired motor skills. Anomalies of brain structure have repeatedly been hypothesized to play a major role in the etiopathogenesis of the disorder. Our objective was to perform unbiased meta-analysis on brain structure changes as reported in the current ASD literature. We thus conducted a comprehensive search for morphometric studies by Pubmed query and literature review. We used a revised version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging results. Probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps were applied to compare the localization of the obtained significant effects to histological areas. Each of the significant ALE clusters was analyzed separately for age effects on gray and white matter density changes. We found six
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are rarely diagnosed in children younger than 2 years, because diagnosis is based entirely on behavioral tests. Oxidative damage may play a central role in this pathogenesis, together with the interconnected transmethylation cycle and transsulfuration pathway. In an attempt to clarify and quantify the relationship between oxidative stress-related blood biomarkers and ASDs, a systematic literature review was carried out. For each identified study, mean biomarker levels were compared in cases and controls providing a point estimate, the mean ratio, for each biomarker. After meta-analysis, the ASD patients showed decreased blood levels of reduced glutathione (27%), glutathione peroxidase (18%), methionine (13%), and cysteine (14%) and increased concentrations of oxidized glutathione (45%) relative to controls, whereas superoxide dismutase, homocysteine, and cystathionine showed no association with ASDs. For the C677T allele in the methylene
The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of serotonin receptor inhibitors (SRIs) for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders (ASD).|Two reviewers searched PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of SRIs for repetitive behaviors in ASD. Our primary outcome was mean improvement in ratings scales of repetitive behavior. Publication bias was assessed by using a funnel plot, the Egger's test, and a meta-regression of sample size and effect size.|Our search identified 5 published and 5 unpublished but completed trials eligible for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of 5 published and 1 unpublished trial (which provided data) demonstrated a small but significant effect of SRI for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in ASD (standardized mean difference: 0.22 [95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.37], z score = 2.87, P < .005). There was significant evidence of publication bias in all analyses.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a multi-organ disease that leads to mental retardation, macro-orchidism in males and premature ovarian insufficiency in female carriers. FXS is also a prominent monogenic disease associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). FXS is typically caused by the loss of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) expression, which codes for the RNA-binding protein FMRP. Here we report the discovery of distinct RNA-recognition elements that correspond to the two independent RNA-binding domains of FMRP, in addition to the binding sites within the messenger RNA targets for wild-type and I304N mutant FMRP isoforms and the FMRP paralogues FXR1P and FXR2P (also known as FXR1 and FXR2). RNA-recognition-element frequency, ratio and distribution determine target mRNA association with FMRP. Among highly enriched targets, we identify many genes involved in ASD and show that FMRP affects their protein levels in human cell culture, mouse ovaries and human brain. Notably, we
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent form of inherited intellectual disability and is also linked to other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. FXS is caused by a triplet expansion that inhibits expression of the FMR1 gene; the gene product, FMRP, regulates mRNA metabolism in the brain and thus controls the expression of key molecules involved in receptor signaling and spine morphology. While there is no definitive cure for FXS, the understanding of FMRP function has paved the way for rational treatment designs that could potentially reverse many of the neurobiological changes observed in FXS. Additionally, behavioral, pharmacological, and cognitive interventions can raise the quality of life for both patients and their families.
23223062 2012 12 11 2013 02 11 1546-170X 18 12 Dec Nat. Med. 1746-7 10.1038/nm.3027 eng Journal Article United States Nat Med 9502015 1078-8956 0 FMR1 protein, human 0 GABA-B Receptor Agonists 139135-51-6 Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein IM drug
Families/caregivers of children with ASD experience problems and disparities in healthcare and service delivery first hand. As a result, they can provide valuable input in the development of a system that best meets the needs of these children. Results from an informal, open response survey completed by participants of the 2011 Autism Speaks Walk in Little Rock most commonly identified the need for better quality educational/interventional services and the need to develop or transform community assets to be more knowledgeable and supportive of individuals with autism as major gaps in the system of care for their children.
Mothers of children with autism experience poorer health and wellbeing compared to mothers of children with other disabilities or typically-developing children. This qualitative phenomenological study aimed to explore the daily life experiences of mothers of children with autism, and the strategies they use to manage their roles, their emotions, and their child's behaviours.|In-depth interviews were conducted with 7 mothers and the data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.|Findings revealed that the mothers were challenged by the demands of their multiple roles while dealing with the paradox of accepting their child for who they were, and at the same time also desiring their typical growth and development. However, the mothers reported various strategies they used to manage their roles, their emotions, and their child's behaviours.|The findings indicate that health professionals working with these families must support mothers in managing various aspects of
Develop algorithms for the differential diagnosis of LGS in pediatric patients. ... Target Audience. This activity has been designed to meet the educational needs of pediatric neurologists and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of