Clinicians who treat children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face a challenging conundrum. Although our understanding of ADHD and its evidence-based treatments has increased… Read More
Atypical antipsychotic agents are widely used psychopharmacological interventions for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among the atypical antipsychotic agents, risperidone has demonstrated considerable benefits in reducing several behavioral symptoms associated with ASDs. This meta-analysis examined research regarding the effectiveness of risperidone use among children with ASD using articles published since the year 2000.|The database for the analyses comprised 22 studies including 16 open-label and six placebo-controlled studies. Based on the quality, sample size, and study design of studies prior to 2000, the database was then restricted to articles published after the year 2000. Effect sizes were calculated for each reported measure within a study to calculate an average effect size per study.|The mean effect size for the database was 1.047 and the sample weighted mean effect size was 1.108, with a variance of 0.18.|Outcome measures demonstrated mean improvement in problematic
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive developmental disorders with characteristic core symptoms such as impairments in social interaction, deviance in communication, repetitive and stereotyped behavior, and impaired motor skills. Anomalies of brain structure have repeatedly been hypothesized to play a major role in the etiopathogenesis of the disorder. Our objective was to perform unbiased meta-analysis on brain structure changes as reported in the current ASD literature. We thus conducted a comprehensive search for morphometric studies by Pubmed query and literature review. We used a revised version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging results. Probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps were applied to compare the localization of the obtained significant effects to histological areas. Each of the significant ALE clusters was analyzed separately for age effects on gray and white matter density changes. We found six
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are rarely diagnosed in children younger than 2 years, because diagnosis is based entirely on behavioral tests. Oxidative damage may play a central role in this pathogenesis, together with the interconnected transmethylation cycle and transsulfuration pathway. In an attempt to clarify and quantify the relationship between oxidative stress-related blood biomarkers and ASDs, a systematic literature review was carried out. For each identified study, mean biomarker levels were compared in cases and controls providing a point estimate, the mean ratio, for each biomarker. After meta-analysis, the ASD patients showed decreased blood levels of reduced glutathione (27%), glutathione peroxidase (18%), methionine (13%), and cysteine (14%) and increased concentrations of oxidized glutathione (45%) relative to controls, whereas superoxide dismutase, homocysteine, and cystathionine showed no association with ASDs. For the C677T allele in the methylene
The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of serotonin receptor inhibitors (SRIs) for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders (ASD).|Two reviewers searched PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of SRIs for repetitive behaviors in ASD. Our primary outcome was mean improvement in ratings scales of repetitive behavior. Publication bias was assessed by using a funnel plot, the Egger's test, and a meta-regression of sample size and effect size.|Our search identified 5 published and 5 unpublished but completed trials eligible for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of 5 published and 1 unpublished trial (which provided data) demonstrated a small but significant effect of SRI for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in ASD (standardized mean difference: 0.22 [95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.37], z score = 2.87, P < .005). There was significant evidence of publication bias in all analyses.
23403688 2013 02 13 2013 02 19 1538-3598 309 6 Feb 13 JAMA 611-3 10.1001/jama.2013.198 Berry Robert J RJ Crider Krista S KS Yeargin-Allsopp Marshalyn M eng Comment Editorial Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484
Prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in children, but it has not been determined whether they protect against other neurodevelopmental disorders.|To examine the association between maternal use of prenatal folic acid supplements and subsequent risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified [PDD-NOS]) in children.|The study sample of 85,176 children was derived from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The children were born in 2002-2008; by the end of follow-up on March 31, 2012, the age range was 3.3 through 10.2 years (mean, 6.4 years). The exposure of primary interest was use of folic acid from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after the start of pregnancy, defined as the first day of the last menstrual period before conception. Relative risks of ASDs were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs in a logistic regression
PTEN gene (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten, MIM 601628) is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS) including Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome and Proteus-like syndrome. PTEN mutations have been more recently reported in children with macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorders or mental retardation, without other symptoms of PHTS. Although tumor risk has not been evaluated in these patients and their relatives, the same surveillance as for Cowden syndrome is usually proposed. We report a family including patients carrying a novel PTEN mutation and presenting with a mild phenotype consisting of macrocephaly, hypotonia during the first year of life and mild learning disabilities, without autistic features. None of these patients exhibited PTHS-related symptoms such as tumors, lipomas, vascular malformations or pigmented macules of the glans penis. This report raises the question of extending the indications of
23157461 2012 12 17 2013 02 19 1469-8749 55 1 Jan Dev Med Child Neurol 13-4 10.1111/dmcn.12042 Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Center, The Alfred and Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic., Australia. Enticott Peter G PG
The mirror mechanism allows the direct translation of a perceived (seen, felt, heard) action into the same motor representation of its related goal. This mechanism allows a direct comprehension of others' goals and motor intentions, enabling an embodied link between individuals. Because the mirror mechanism is a functional expression of the motor system, these findings suggest the relevance of the motor system to social cognition. It has been hypothesized that the impaired understanding of others' intentions, sensations, and emotions reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be linked to an alteration of the mirror mechanism in all of these domains. In this review, we address the theoretical issues underlying the social impairments in ASD and discuss them in relation to the cognitive role of the mirror mechanism.
Develop algorithms for the differential diagnosis of LGS in pediatric patients. ... Target Audience. This activity has been designed to meet the educational needs of pediatric neurologists and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of