Steinberg-Epstein R, Book T, Wigal SB. Controversies surrounding pediatric psychopharmacology. Adv Pediatr.
Egger HL, Angold A. Common emotional and behavioral disorders in preschool children: presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.
Hood KK, Eyberg SM. Outcomes of parent-child interaction therapy: mothers’ reports of maintenance three to six years after treatment. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol
Cohen JA, Mannarino AP. A treatment outcome study for sexually abused preschool children: initial findings [published correction appears in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.
1996;35:835]. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.
Lieberman AF, Ghosh Ippen C, Van Horn P. Child-parent psychotherapy: 6-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.
Zito JM, Safer DJ, dosReis S, et al. Trends in the prescribing of psychotropic medications to preschoolers. JAMA.
Pear R. White House seeks to curb pills used to calm the young. New York Times.
March 20, 2000.
Shute N, Locy T, Pasternak D, et al. The perils of pills. The psychiatric medication of children is dangerously haphazard. US News World Rep
Patel NC, Crismon ML, Hoagwood K, et al. Trends in the use of typical and atypical antipsychotics in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.
Cooper WO, Hickson GB, Fuchs C, et al. New users of antipsychotic medications among children enrolled in TennCare. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.
Zuvekas SH, Vitiello B, Norquist GS. Recent trends in stimulant medication use among U.S. children [published correction appears in Am J Psychiatry.
2006;163:942]. Am J Psychiatry.
Zito JM, Safer DJ, Valluri S, et al. Psychotherapeutic medication prevalence in Medicaid-insured preschoolers. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol.
Constantine RJ, Tandon R, McPherson M, Andel R. Early diagnoses and psychotherapeutic medication treatment experiences of a cohort of children under 6 years old who received antipsychotic treatment in Florida’s Medicaid program. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol.
Olfson M, Crystal S, Huang C, Gerhard T. Trends in antipsychotic drug use by very young, privately insured children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.
McClellan J, Kowatch R, Findling RL; Work Group on Quality Issues. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder [published correction appears in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.2007;46:786]. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.2007;46:107-125.
16. Ellis AR. The administration of psychotropic medication to children ages 0-4 in North Carolina: an exploratory analysis. N C Med J.2010;71:9-14.
17. Gleason MM, Egger HL, Emslie GJ, et al. Psychopharmacological treatment for very young children: contexts and guidelines. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.2007;46:1532-1572.
18. Food and Drug Administration. Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act of 2002. January 2002. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/ucm049876.htm. Accessed February 14, 2012.
19.Laughren TP. Regulatory issues in pediatric psychopharmacology. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.1996;35:1276-1282.
20. Greenhill L, Kollins S, Abikoff H, et al. Efficacy and safety of immediate-release methylphenidate treatment for preschoolers with ADHD [published correction appears in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.2007;46:141]. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.2006;45:1284-1293.
21.Llorente-Berzal A, Mela V, Borcel E, et al. Neurobehavioral and metabolic long-term consequences of neonatal maternal deprivation stress and adolescent olanzapine treatment in male and female rats. Neuropharmacology. 2011 Jul 28; [Epub ahead of print].
22. Moll GH, Hause S, Rüther E, et al. Early methylphenidate administration to young rats causes a persistent reduction in the density of striatal dopamine transporters. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol.2001;11:15-24.
23. Penner MR, McFadyen MP, Pinaud R, et al. Age-related distribution of c-fos expression in the striatum of CD-1 mice after acute methylphenidate administration. Brain Res Dev Brain Res.2002;135:71-77.
24. Gray JD, Punsoni M, Tabori N, et al. Methylphenidate administration to juvenile rats alters brain areas involved in cognition, motivated behaviors, appetite, and stress. J Neurosci.2007;27:7196-7207.
25.Findling R, Drury S, Jensen P, Rapoport J; AACAP Committee on Quality Issues. Practice parameter for the use of atypical antipsychotic medications in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.In press.
26. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Practice parameter on the use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.2009;48:961-973.
27. Spetie L, Arnold LE. Ethical issues in child psychopharmacology research and practice: emphasis on preschoolers. Psychopharmacology (Berl).2007;191:15-26.
28. Leslie LK, Raghavan R, Zhang J, Aarons GA. Rates of psychotropic medication use over time among youth in child welfare/child protective services. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol.2010;20:135-143.