Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a fascinating condition that has perplexed clinicians, researchers, parents and patients for a long time. Research indicated that management of ADHD in children and adolescents should emphasize a multimodal approach, with attention to proper school placement, appropriate psychological therapy and, in many situations, psychopharmacology. This review focuses on the medications that have been noted to provide benefit to adolescents with ADHD.Stimulants
Methylphenidate(Drug information on methylphenidate) (Ritalin, Concerta, Metadate, Methylin) is the most commonly prescribed stimulant with hundreds of randomized, controlled studies noting that it may provide benefit to patients with ADHD in various ways: enhance concentration, reduce hyperarousal as well as impulsivity, improve tasks (i.e., homework completion, school and/or work performance), and/or lessen antisocial and aggressive behavior. Research reveals that the methylphenidate mechanism of action involves increasing extracellular dopamine(Drug information on dopamine) levels by selective binding of the presynaptic dopamine transporter in the central nervous system (prefrontal and striatal areas) in addition to norepinephrine(Drug information on norepinephrine) transporter blockage (Solanto et al., 2001).
Table 1 (due to copyright concerns, this table cannot be reproduced online. Please see p48 of the print edition--Ed.) outlines the well-known daily dosage schedule and some of the adverse reactions for methylphenidate. This chemical crosses the blood-brain barrier after gastrointestinal absorption, with stimulant effects that begin in 30 to 45 minutes, peak in one to two hours and then wane after three to five hours.
This immediate-release (IR) methylphenidate can be taken up to three times a day if necessary. Ritalin and its generic version have been used for decades to medically manage adolescents with ADHD. If a stimulant effect is needed for longer than the duration of IR methylphenidate, Ritalin sustained-release (SR) or its generic version can be used to deliver an equivalent of 7 mg IR methylphenidate for several hours. However, this product has not been well-received because of unpredictable absorption related to limited bioavailability and erratic gastric absorption; also, it is only made in a 20 mg tablet that limits prescription as well as titration flexibility. If the tablet is broken, the sustained-release mechanism is destroyed.
Because of the popularity of IR methylphenidate as a stimulant and the negative reputation of Ritalin SR, an aggressive search has been launched over the past decade to find the optimal sustained-release stimulant product. Table 2 lists the currently available methylphenidate products.New Products
Concerta employs an osmotic time-release OROS mechanism in which there is a tri-layer core enveloped by a membrane that is semipermeable; this allows slow release of methylphenidate using a laser-drilled opening at one end. Approximately 22% of the tablet is on the outer membrane, and this allows the first peak plasma concentration to appear in one to two hours. Concerta is manufactured as 18 mg, 36 mg and 54 mg extended-release tablets. It is nearly impossible to alter the tablet and use its methylphenidate as a drug of abuse. It cannot be chewed, divided or crushed.
Ritalin LA is available as 20 mg, 30 mg and 40 mg capsules that release two methylphenidate doses four hours apart, using immediate-release and sustained-release beads. If the adolescent has problems swallowing pills, the capsule can be opened and the beads mixed into their food.
Methylin contains immediate-release methylphenidate and is made as tablets of 5 mg, 10 mg and 20 mg strength. Methylin ER consists of 10 mg and 20 mg extended-release methylphenidate tablets, lasting up to eight hours.
Metadate ER allows a more continuous methylphenidate release for up to eight hours; it is made in 10 mg and 20 mg strengths. Metadate CD is made as 20 mg capsules in which 30% is immediate-release methylphenidate and the remaining is released over six to 10 hours. The capsule can be opened and the beads placed in food, if swallowing is a problem. This, as with any long-acting stimulant product, may cause anorexia in the evening and induce insomnia.
Focalin (dexmethylphenidate HCL) is the d-threo-enantiomer of racemic methylphenidate hydrochloride, which may have more pharmacologic activity than the l-form. It is made as 2.5 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg tablets (half the dosage of Ritalin) and is an immediate-release product that lasts four to six hours.
Noven Pharmaceuticals is developing a transdermal methylphenidate formulation called MethyPatch; a new drug application is pending at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
How does the clinician choose with the recent explosion of these various methylphenidate products? The most comprehensive, unbiased and often quoted study on the benefits of methylphenidate is the National Institutes of Mental Health's Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA). This study, released in 1999, indicated that short-acting methylphenidate provided several times a day was more effective in improving core ADHD symptoms (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity/impulsiveness and aggression) than psychosocial/behavioral treatment alone (Jensen et al., 2001; MTA Cooperative Group, 1999).
Many youth do not like taking several methylphenidate doses during the day, especially during school hours. Therefore, numerous clinicians are starting with a sustained- or extended-release methylphenidate product when first placing a patient on stimulant medication. The problem in choosing a specific longer-acting methylphenidate product is that there are too few current scientific studies comparing these various products (The Medical Letter, 2001, 2000). Furthermore, some current studies may be biased since many were conducted under sponsorship of the very pharmaceutical companies that are making these products. Patients and parents must understand that we do not have all the answers at this time and that all these methylphenidate products have side effects. It is also important to understand that not all youth with ADHD respond positively to methylphenidate (Table 3; due to copyright concerns, this table cannot be reproduced online. Please see p49 of the print edition--Ed.)
Table 4 (due to copyright considerations, this table cannot be reproduced online. Please see p49 of the print edition--Ed.) lists side effects of methylphenidate medications that are well-reviewed in the literature (Greenhill et al., 2002; Greydanus et al., in press; Greydanus et al., 2002). Contraindications for stimulants include known sensitivity to a specific stimulant component, psychosis, symptomatic cardiovascular disorders, glaucoma, uncontrolled hypertension, hyperthyroidism, concomitant use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and drug dependence. Various drug interactions with stimulants are described, including MAOIs, tricyclic antidepressants and some anticonvulsants (Greenhill et al., 2002; Greydanus et al., in press; Greydanus et al., 2002).
When side effects arise, it is important to note if there is any relationship to low or high levels of the stimulant. For example, headaches may occur with the methylphenidate peak or as the level recedes; analgesics may be helpful for these headaches. A stimulant-induced mild rise in heart rate and blood pressure is usually not of concern. Appetite suppression often occurs and may lead to weight loss and a nutritionally induced growth delay; constitutional delay in growth and adolescence may also be found in adolescents with ADHD, especially male patients. Although the patient may be taking stimulants for many years, it is important to note the final height is not compromised.
Tolerance is a somewhat controversial side effect that is not clearly documented by research. Families can be taught that it does not signify addiction and changing stimulants or other medications used for ADHD may be helpful. The notion of rebound remains controversial; although it is observed and commented on by clinicians and authors, it has not been clearly identified by research. It can be seen in the late morning or early afternoon if an IR stimulant is being used and in the late afternoon for a SR agent. Alternating various stimulants (IR and SR types) and/or using longer-acting medications (such as TCAs, α-2 agonists or bupropion [Wellbutrin]) may help, depending on the timing of the rebound. Early evening rebound is difficult to manage without causing sleep dysfunction. Early morning rebound may be helped by waking adolescents up 30 minutes to 45 minutes earlier to give them stimulant medication and allow them more rest until the medication peaks.
Sleep disturbances are commonly seen in youth on stimulant medications, especially if longer-acting agents are still active at bedtime. Other causes of insomnia should be corrected, such as excess caffeine(Drug information on caffeine) intake, poor sleep habits, and concomitant anxiety or depression. Sleep disturbances can be managed by using a stimulant schedule that is not pharmacologically active at bedtime and adding an α-2 agonists or other sedative medication and an antidepressant if depression is a comorbid illness.
The presence of tics and Tourette syndrome is not a contraindication to the use of stimulant medications. Medications (e.g., pimozide [Orap], haloperidol(Drug information on haloperidol) [Haldol] or risperidone(Drug information on risperidone) [Risperdal]) to treat the tics may be added and the stimulants continued if they are helpful. When stimulants are prescribed to youth with tics and ADHD, one-third report worsening of the tics, one-third note no change, and one-third improve (Gadow et al., 1999; Jankovic, 2001). Some medications can improve ADHD without worsening the tics; these include α-2 agonists, TCAs and atomoxetine(Drug information on atomoxetine) (Strattera). The tics may worsen or stay the same on bupropion.
Although Ritalin can be abused to develop a state of euphoria, there is no evidence that providing methyl-phenidate to a youth with ADHD increases the risk for subsequent psychoactive drug disorder; some literature even suggests the risk is reduced (Wilens et al., 2003).
Depression or anxiety may develop as a side effect of being on the stimulant or because of a comorbid mood disorder or anxiety disorder. A stimulant trial may precipitate acute mania in youth with ADHD and latent bipolar disorder. A careful assessment is necessary to pinpoint the precise issue and appropriate management. Youth on high doses of stimulants may appear withdrawn and in a state of perseveration; this dazed or "drugged" appearance usually responds to medication dose reduction.
Clinicians should be sure that the stimulant is not being diverted to someone else in or outside the home.