The nation’s leading causes of death are related to alcohol and drug use, tobacco smoke exposure, and behavioral addictions. In addition, the comorbidity of addictions and psychiatric illnesses (ie, dual diagnosis) is… Read More
OBJECTIVE: A three-week in-unit, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial in non-treatment-seeking heroin addicts was undertaken to test the translatability of pre-clinical findings of enhanced opioid analgesia and reduced dependence and tolerance with concomitant ibudilast exposure.
BACKGROUND: Previous animal studies have established that systemic ibudilast administration can improve the analgesic potency and efficacy of therapeutic doses of opioids such as morphine and oxy
Advertisement. Search. Still not a subscriber to JACC Imaging or JACC Interventions? J Am Coll Cardiol, 2012; 59: 2221-2305, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.02.010 ( Published online 8 May 2012). 2012 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is an important factor for the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanisms of MCP-1-mediated neuropathogenesis, in part, revolve around its neuroinflammatory role and the recruitment of monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) via the disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have previously demonstrated that HIV-1/HIV-1 Tat upregulate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, a
Possible interactions between nervous and immune systems in neuro-psychiatric disorders remain elusive. Levels of brain dopamine transporter (DAT) have been implicated in several impulse-control disorders, like attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we assessed the interplay between DAT auto-immunity and behavioural / neurochemical phenotype.|Possible interactions between nervous and immune systems in neuro-psychiatric disorders remain elusive. Leve
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is known to be dysregulated in persons with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), for uncertain reasons. This is an important issue because impaired vasoreactivity has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, elevated overall cardiovascular risk and cognitive impairment.|Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is known to be dysregulated in persons with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), for uncertain reasons. This is an important issue because impaired vasoreactivity has
The -opioid receptor is a primary target for clinically important opioid analgesics, including morphine, fentanyl and methadone. Many genetic variations have been identified in the human -opioid receptor MOP gene (OPRM1), and their implications have been reported in the effects of opioid drugs and susceptibility to drug dependence. Interestingly, agonistic and antagonistic opioid effects are inversely associated with the A118G polymorphism genotype. The A118G polymorphism may also be associated with substance dependence and susceptibility to other disorders, including epilepsy and schizophrenia. The IVS1+A21573G, IVS1-T17286C, and TAA+A5359G polymorphisms in the OPRM1 gene may be associated with alcohol, opioid and tobacco dependence, respectively. However, some studies have failed to confirm the correlations between the polymorphisms and opioid effects and substance dependence. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of OPRM1
Chronic morphine exposure causes tolerance and dependence. The cessation of morphine consumption induces a withdrawal syndrome that may involve cannabinoids and is characterized by undesirable psychological and physical signs. The present study examined whether augmentation of the endocannabinoid system by inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase could suppress the morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-addicted rats. Morphine dependency was induced by 7 consecutive days of morphine injection. The morphine-addicted rats received URB597 (1, 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, 0.03 mg/kg), a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, before the precipitation of morphine withdrawal syndromes by naloxone. Withdrawal symptoms including jumping, teeth chattering, paw tremor, wet dog shakes, face grooming, penis licking, standing, rearing, sniffing and percent of weight loss were recorded during 30 min after naloxone injection. The results showed that the morphine withdrawal precipitated rats had significantly more
The histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 gene (HINT1) is implicated in schizophrenia and in the behavioral effects of morphine and amphetamine. Because nicotine dependence (ND) is highly comorbid with schizophrenia and other substance abuse, we examined the association of HINT1 with ND. Association analyses from two independent samples show that HINT1 gene variants are associated with ND phenotypes. Furthermore, human postmortem mRNA expression shows that smoking status and genotype influence HINT1 expression in the brain. In animal studies, western blot analyses show an increase of HINT1 protein level in the mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc) after chronic nicotine exposure. This increase was reduced after treatment with the nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and 24 and 72h after cessation of nicotine treatment. These results indicate a genetic association between HINT1 variants and ND, and indicate that nicotine-induced modulation of HINT1 level may be involved in
APRIL JOGC AVRIL 2011 l 367 Substance Use in Pregnancy This clinical practice guideline has been prepared by the Working Group on Problematic Substance Use in Pregnancy, reviewed by the Maternal Fetal Medicine Committee, the Family Physicians
Five Steps to Improving Patient Access Judy Capko, May 21, 2013 Patient access is getting increased attention through reform initiatives. Here are five steps you can take to make sure patients get appropriate access to care in your office.