The nation’s leading causes of death are related to alcohol and drug use, tobacco smoke exposure, and behavioral addictions. In addition, the comorbidity of addictions and psychiatric illnesses (ie, dual diagnosis) is… Read More
OBJECTIVE: A three-week in-unit, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial in non-treatment-seeking heroin addicts was undertaken to test the translatability of pre-clinical findings of enhanced opioid analgesia and reduced dependence and tolerance with concomitant ibudilast exposure.
BACKGROUND: Previous animal studies have established that systemic ibudilast administration can improve the analgesic potency and efficacy of therapeutic doses of opioids such as morphine and oxy
Advertisement. Search. Still not a subscriber to JACC Imaging or JACC Interventions? J Am Coll Cardiol, 2012; 59: 2221-2305, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.02.010 ( Published online 8 May 2012). 2012 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is an important factor for the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanisms of MCP-1-mediated neuropathogenesis, in part, revolve around its neuroinflammatory role and the recruitment of monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) via the disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have previously demonstrated that HIV-1/HIV-1 Tat upregulate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, a
Possible interactions between nervous and immune systems in neuro-psychiatric disorders remain elusive. Levels of brain dopamine transporter (DAT) have been implicated in several impulse-control disorders, like attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we assessed the interplay between DAT auto-immunity and behavioural / neurochemical phenotype.|Possible interactions between nervous and immune systems in neuro-psychiatric disorders remain elusive. Leve
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is known to be dysregulated in persons with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), for uncertain reasons. This is an important issue because impaired vasoreactivity has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, elevated overall cardiovascular risk and cognitive impairment.|Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is known to be dysregulated in persons with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), for uncertain reasons. This is an important issue because impaired vasoreactivity has
The Cancer Control Act of Japan came into effect in 2007. Most physicians, however, have not yet had sufficient opportunity to learn about pain management and other clinical palliative care practices. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the Japanese Society for Palliative Medicine has initiated the Palliative care Emphasis program on symptom management and Assessment for Continuous medical Education project. The two major roles of this project are to establish a faculty development program in palliative care, and to provide support for conducting workshops about basic palliative care throughout Japan. Another important movement is the development of a clinical guideline for the management of cancer pain. The Japanese Society for Palliative Medicine developed a clinical guideline for the pharmacological management of cancer pain in 2010. On the other hand, although clinical experience has demonstrated that psychological dependence is not a major concern when morphine is used to
Buprenorphine is an opioid that has a complex and unique pharmacology which provides some advantages over other potent mu agonists. We review 12 reasons for considering buprenorphine as a frontline analgesic for moderate to severe pain: (1) Buprenorphine is effective in cancer pain; (2) buprenorphine is effective in treating neuropathic pain; (3) buprenorphine treats a broader array of pain phenotypes than do certain potent mu agonists, is associated with less analgesic tolerance, and can be combined with other mu agonists; (4) buprenorphine produces less constipation than do certain other potent mu agonists, and does not adversely affect the sphincter of Oddi; (5) buprenorphine has a ceiling effect on respiratory depression but not analgesia; (6) buprenorphine causes less cognitive impairment than do certain other opioids; (7) buprenorphine is not immunosuppressive like morphine and fentanyl; (8) buprenorphine does not adversely affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or cause
In the search for opioid ligands with mixed functional activity, a series of 5'-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,5-epoxypyridomorphinans possessing alkoxy or acyloxy groups at C-14 was synthesized and evaluated. In this series, the affinity and functional activity of the ligands were found to be influenced by the nature of the substituent at C-14 as well as by the substituent at N-17. Whereas the incorporation of a 3-phenylpropoxy group at C-14 on N-methylpyridomorhinan gave a dual MOR agonist/DOR agonist 17h, its incorporation on N-cyclopropylmethylpyridomorphinan gave a MOR agonist/DOR antagonist 17d. Interestingly, 17d, in contrast to 17h, did not produce tolerance or dependence effects upon prolonged treatment in cells expressing MOR and DOR. Moreover, 17d displayed greatly diminished analgesic tolerance as compared to morphine upon repeated administration, thus supporting the hypothesis that ligands with MOR agonist/DOR antagonist functional activity could emerge as novel analgesics devoid
Among several pharmacological properties, analgesia is the most common feature shared by either opioid or cannabinoid systems. Cannabinoids and opioids are distinct drug classes that have been historically used separately or in combination to treat different pain states. In the present study, we characterized the signal transduction pathways mediated by cannabinoid CB(2) and -opioid receptors in quiescent and LPS-stimulated murine microglial cells.|We examined the effects of -opioid and CB(2) receptor stimulation on phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt and on IL-1, TNF-, IL-6 and NO production in primary mouse microglial cells.|Morphine enhanced release of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1, TNF-, IL-6, and of NO via -opioid receptor in activated microglial cells. In contrast, CB(2) receptor stimulation attenuated morphine-induced microglial proinflammatory mediator increases, interfering with morphine action by acting on the Akt-ERK1/2 signalling pathway.|Because glial
Sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone (buprenorphine SL) is a preparation that is used to treat opioid dependence. In addition, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has acknowledged the legality of an off-label use to treat pain with a sublingual buprenorphine preparation. Buprenorphine SL is unique among the opioid class of analgesics; this compound has a high affinity for the mu-receptor, yet only partially activates it. Thus, buprenorphine SL can provide analgesia, yet minimize opioid side effects. Many patients on high doses of traditional opioid medication develop tolerance. Despite escalating medication dosage, a subset of patients had a paradoxical increase in pain, which has been characterized as opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Buprenorphine SL, on the other hand, may even be anti-hyperalgesic and may have utility in treating these challenging patients.|To determine the effectiveness of converting patients from traditional full agonist opioid medication to sublingual
APRIL JOGC AVRIL 2011 l 367 Substance Use in Pregnancy This clinical practice guideline has been prepared by the Working Group on Problematic Substance Use in Pregnancy, reviewed by the Maternal Fetal Medicine Committee, the Family Physicians