References: 
Drugs Mentioned in This Article
Benztropine mesylate oral (Cogentin)
Chlorpromazine (Largactil, Thorazine)
Clonazepam (Klonopin, Rivotril)
Disulfiram (Antabuse)
Divalproex (Epival, Depakote)
Haloperidol (Haldol)
Lorazepam (Ativan)
Olanzapine (Zyprexa)
Paroxetine (Paxil)
Risperidone (Risperdal)

1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.
2. Lipowski ZJ. Delirium: Acute Brain Failure in Man. New York: Oxford University Press; 1990.
3. Meagher D, Moran M, Raju B, et al. A new data-based motor subtype schema for delirium. J Neuro-
psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008;20:185-193.
4. Banki CM, Molnar G. Cerebrospinal fluid metabolites in delirium tremens. Psychiatr Clin (Basel). 1981; 14:167-177.
5. Balan S, Leibovitz A, Zila SO, et al. The relation between the clinical subtypes of delirium and the urinary level of 6-SMT. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2003;15:363-366.
6. Breitbart W, Tremblay A, Gibson C. An open trial of olanzapine for the treatment of delirium in cancer patients. Psychosomatics. 2002;43:175-182.
7. Breitbart W, Marotta R, Platt MM, et al. A double-blind trial of haloperidol, chlorpromazine and loraze­pam in the treatment of delirium in hospitalized AIDS patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153:231-237.
8. Stagno D, Gibson C, Breitbart W. The delirium subtypes: a review of prevalence, phenomenology, pathophysiology, and treatment. Palliat Support Care. 2004; 2:171-179.
9. Hauser P, Devinsky O, De Bellis M, et al. Benzodiazepine withdrawal delirium with catatonic features. Arch Neurol. 1989;46:696-699.
10. Malur C, Francis A. Emergence of catatonia during ECT. J ECT. 2001;17:201-204.
11. Alilci-Evcimen Y, Breitbart W. An update on the use of antipsychotics in the treatment of delirium. Palliat Support Care. 2008;6:177-182.
12. White DA, Robins AH. An analysis of 17 catatonic patients diagnosed with neuroleptic malignant syndrome. CNS Spectr. 2000;5:58-65.
13. Bush G, Fink M, Petrides G, et al. Catatonia, I: rating scale and standardized examination. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996;93:129-136.
14. Francis A, Malur C. Delirium or catatonic disorder due to a medical condition: reply to Dr Conrad Swartz. J ECT. 2002;18:168.
15. Francis A. Update on catatonia. Psychiatric Times. 2006;23:23-24.
16. Lopez-Canino A, Francis A. Drug-induced catatonia. In: Caroff S, Mann S, Francis A, Fricchione G, eds. Catatonia. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 2004:129-140.
17. Lopez-Canino A, Garro B, German M, et al. Delirium With Catatonic Features: A New Sub-Type? Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2008.
18. Trzepacz PT, Mittal D, Torres R, et al. Validation of the Delirium Rating Scale-revised-98: comparison with the delirium rating scale and the cognitive test for delirium [published correction appears in J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;13:433]. J Neuro­psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;13:229-242.
19. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. “Mini-mental state.” A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975;12:189-198.
20. Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. A new method for detection of delirium. Ann Intern Med.1990;113:941-948.
21. Liptzin B, Levkoff SE. An empirical study of delirium subtypes. Br J Psychiatry. 1992;161:843-835.
22. Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B, Roth A, et al.The Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale. J Pain Symptom Manag. 1997;13:128-137