Dr Capehart reports that he is listed as the sole inventor on a patent application describing tizanidine for the treatment of certain psychiatric disorders. This patent is owned by the federal government and there are no current licensing agreements with this patent. Dr Bass reports that he has no conflicts of interest concerning the subject matter of this article.


1. Brethauer S, Chao A, Chambers L, et al. Invasion vs insurgency: US Navy/Marine Corps forward surgical care during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Arch Surg. 2008;143:564-569.

2. Wade AL, Dye JL, Mohrle CR, Galarneau MR. Head, face, and neck injuries during Operation Iraqi Freedom II: results from the US Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry. J Trauma. 2007;63:836-840.

3. Bird SM, Fairweather CB. Military fatality rates (by cause) in Afghanistan and Iraq: a measure of hostilities. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36:841-846.

4. Owens BD, Kragh JF Jr, Wenke JC, et al. Combat wounds in operation Iraqi Freedom and operation Enduring Freedom. J Trauma. 2008;64:295-299.

5. Martin EM, Lu WC, Helmick K, et al. Traumatic brain injuries sustained in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. Am J Nurs. 2008;108:40-47; quiz 47-48.

6. Bochicchio GV, Lumpkins K, O’Connor J, et al. Blast injury in a civilian trauma setting is associated with a delay in diagnosis of traumatic brain injury. Am Surg. 2008;74:267-270.

7. Rutland-Brown W, Langlois JA, Nicaj L, et al. Traumatic brain injuries after mass-casualty incidents: lessons from the 11 September 2001 World Trade Center attacks. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007;22:157-164.

8. Hooker DR. Physiological effects of air concussion. Am J Physiol. 1924;67:219-274.

9. Bowen IG, Fletcher ER, Richmond DR. Estimate of Man’s Tolerance to the Direct Effects of Air Blast. 1968. Accessed June 3, 2011.
10. Bass CR, Rafaels KA, Salzar RS. Pulmonary injury risk assessment for short-duration blasts. J Trauma. 2008;65:604-615.

11. Rafaels K, Bass CR, Panzer M, et al. Primary brain blast tolerance. PEO Soldier Conference on TBI and Helmet Design. Springfield, VA; 2011.

12. Gaber TA. Evaluation of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination’s validity in a brain injury rehabilitation setting. Brain Inj. 2008;22:589-593.

13. Coldren RL, Kelly MP, Parish RV, et al. Evaluation of the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation for use in combat operations more than 12 hours after injury. Mil Med. 2010;175:477-481.

14. Lane-Brown A, Tate R. Interventions for apathy after traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD006341.

15. Kraus MF, Little DM, Donnell AJ, et al. Oculomotor function in chronic traumatic brain injury. Cogn Behav Neurol. 2007;20:170-178.

16. Mehlenbacher A, Capehart BP, Bass CR, Burke JR. Sound induced vertigo: superior canal dehiscence resulting from blast exposure. Arch PMR. In press.

17. Nampiaparampil DE. Prevalence of chronic pain after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review. JAMA. 2008;300:711-719.

18. Silver JM, McAllister TW, Arciniegas DB. Depression and cognitive complaints following mild traumatic brain injury. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166:653-661.

19. Brenner LA, Terrio H, Homaifar BY, et al. Neuropsychological test performance in soldiers with blast-related mild TBI. Neuropsychology. 2010;24:160-167.