1. Administration on Aging. Profile of older Americans: 2009. Accessed July 10, 2012.

2. Results from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Volume I. Summary of national findings. Accessed July 9, 2012.

3. Culberson JW, Ziska M. Prescription drug misuses/abuse in the elderly. Geriatrics. 2008;63:22-31.

4. Jinks MJ, Raschko RR. A profile of alcohol and prescription drug abuse in a high-risk community-based elderly population. DICP. 1990;24:971-975.

5. Brennan PL, Moos RH. Late-life drinking behavior: the influence of personal characteristics, life context, and treatment. Alcohol Health Res World. 1996;20:197-204.

6. Weathermon R, Crabb DW. Alcohol and medication interactions. Alcohol Res Health. 1999;23:40-54.

7. George LK, Landerman R, Blazer DG, Anthony DC. Cognitive impairment. In: Robins LN, Reiger DA, eds. Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. New York: Free Press; 1991:291-327.

8. Rogers J, Wiese BS, Rabheru K. The older brain on drugs: substances that may cause cognitive impairment. Geriatr Aging. 2008;11:284-289.

9. Bartels SJ, Blow FC, Van Citters AD, Brockmann LM. Dual diagnosis among older adults: co-occurring substance abuse and psychiatric illness. J Dual Diag. 2006;2:9-30.

10. Kranzler HR, Rosenthal RN. Dual diagnosis: alcoholism and co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Am J Addict. 2003;12(suppl 1):S26-S40.

11. Pennington H, Butler R, Eagger S. The assessment of patients with alcohol disorders by an old age psychiatric service. Aging Ment Health. 2000;4:182-184.

12. Moore AA, Seeman T, Morgenstern H, et al. Are there differences between older persons who screen positive on the CAGE questionnaire and the Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test-Geriatric Version? J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50:858-886.

13. Fleming MF, Manwell LB, Barry KL, et al. Brief physician advice for alcohol problems in older adults: a randomized community-based trial. J Fam Pract. 1999;48:378-384.

14. Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People for Change. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 2002.

15. Bartels SJ, Coakley EH, Zubritsky C, et al; PRISM-E Investigators. Improving access to geriatric mental health services: a randomized trial comparing treatment engagement with integrated versus enhanced referral care for depression, anxiety, and at-risk alcohol use. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1455-1462.

16. Oslin D, Liberto JG, O'Brien J, et al. Naltrexone as an adjunctive treatment for older patients with alcohol dependence. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1997;5:324-332.

17. Dunne FJ. Misuse of alcohol or drugs by elderly people. BMJ. 1994;308:608-609.

18. Mann K, Lehert P, Morgan MY. The efficacy of acamprosate in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent individuals: results of a meta-analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28:51-63.