Disturbed sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythmicity are associated with cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Employing a tissue-isolated human breast xenograft tumor nude rat model, we observed that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), an enzyme critical in metabolism and cell proliferation/survival, exhibits a circadian rhythm of phosphorylation in human breast tumors. Exposure to light-at-night suppresses the nocturnal pineal melatonin synthesis, disrupting the circadian rhythm of G
Human time perception is influenced by various factors such as attention and drowsiness. Nevertheless, the impact of cerebral vigilance fluctuations on temporal perception has not been sufficiently explored. We assumed that the state of vigilance ascertained by electroencephalography (EEG) during the perception of a given auditory rhythm would influence its reproduction. Thus, we hypothesised that the re-tapping interval length and the accuracy of reproduction performance would vary depending on the state
The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) is a 26-item instrument for evaluating sleep among children aged 3-18 years. It differentiates among conditions such as disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, sleep breathing disorders, disorders of arousal, sleep-waketransitiondisorders, excessive somnolence, and sleep hyperhydrosis. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate it for Brazilian Portuguese.|The study was carried out in two phases: (1) forward translation, back translation, pretesting, and calculation of sample size; (2) validation: reliability (Chronbach's alpha), convergent analysis (Pearson correlation), and discriminatory validity (comparing the scores of the test with the results of polysomnography). One hundred children, aged 3-18 years, accompanied by their parents and/or guardians participated in the phases. PSG studies have been done to calculate the sample size and validation.|The scale instructions and items were adapted
Profound disturbances in sleep architecture occur in major depressive disorders (MDD) and in bipolar affective disorders. Reduction in slow wave sleep, decreased latency of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and abnormalities in the timing of REM/non-REM sleep cycles have all been documented in patients with MDD. It is thus evident that an understanding of the basic mechanisms of sleep regulation is essential for an analysis of the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which functions as the body's master circadian clock, plays a major role in the regulation of the sleep/wakefulness rhythm and interacts actively with the homeostatic processes that regulate sleep. The control of melatonin secretion by the SCN, the occurrence of high concentrations of melatonin receptors in the SCN, and the suppression of electrical activity in the SCN by melatonin all underscore the major influence which this neurohormone has in regulating the sleep/wake cycle. The
Children with CHARGE syndrome frequently develop moderate to severe behavior difficulties and are often diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit disorder, Tourette syndrome, and autism. Anecdotal reports have indicated that sleep is also affected. However, the prevalence and types of sleep disturbance have not been identified. This study investigated sleep disturbances in 87 children with CHARGE syndrome, aged 6 to 18 years (mean 11y, SD 3y 8mo). There were 52 males and 35 females represented. Instruments included measures of sleep (Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children [SDSC]), behavior (Developmental Behaviour Checklist [DBC]), and carer well-being (Malaise Inventory). On the SDSC, 57.5% received scores considered significant for sleep disturbances, with disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, sleep breathing, and sleep-waketransition being the most common. The SDSC was significantly correlated with the DBC (p=0.010) and the Malaise Inventory (p=0.003).
To determine the prevalence of snoring in young children and to assess age, growth, previous surgery therapy, respiratory problems and sleep-related symptoms in relation to child's snoring, and to evaluate the relationship between child's snoring and parents' snoring and smoking.|A cross-sectional study evaluated 2100 children 1-6 years of age in Helsinki, Finland. Child's frequency of snoring on a five-point scale (never to every night) and age, height, weight and body mass index, previous adenotonsillectomies, tympanostomies, allergic rhinitis and respiratory infections were determined as was frequency of parental snoring and smoking. Sleep problems were determined based on Finnish or Swedish modified version of the sleep disturbance scale for Children.|Of the 2100 eligible children, 1471 (71%) returned questionnaires. Children always or often snoring numbered 92 (6.3%), sometimes snoring, 183 (12.4%), and never or occasionally snoring, 1196 (81.3%). No difference in age (p=0.06) or
To report the occurrence of adult-onset (de novo) sleepwalking in a series of 6 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD).|Case series.|Outpatient clinic for movement disorders. Patients and|Of 165 consecutive patients with PD seen for 2 years, 6 patients with adult-onset sleepwalking were identified. These patients underwent a systematic clinical assessment of their extrapyramidal and sleep problems, which included standard questionnaires, clinical examination, and estimation of PD severity (motor score of the Unified PD Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr stage). Five of 6 patients had a video-polysomnography recording that was scored according to international criteria.|Patients included 3 women and 3 men with a mean (+/-SD) age of 66 +/- 12 years (range, 46-78 years). The mean (+/-SD) Unified PD Rating Scale score was 25 +/- 9 (range, 10-35) and the mean (+/-SD) Hoehn and Yahr stage was 2.5 +/- 1.0 (range, 1.0-4.0). Medications in these patients included levodopa (n = 6),
Five Steps to Improving Patient Access Judy Capko, May 21, 2013 Patient access is getting increased attention through reform initiatives. Here are five steps you can take to make sure patients get appropriate access to care in your office.