When discussing the concept of cognitive impairment, many terms are used, including dementia, amnestic disorder, cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND), cognitive impairment associated with normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, vascular cognitive impairment,… Read More
While brain volume changes are used as surrogate markers for Alzheimer disease neuropathology in clinical studies, the extent to which these changes are due to pathologic features of Alzheimer disease in the aging brain is not well established. This study aims to clarify the neuropathologic correlates of longitudinal brain atrophy.
To examine the association between brain atrophy during life and neurop
0. Search. Original Investigation| Mar 11, 2013. Why US Adults Use Dietary Supplements FREE. Regan L. Bailey, PhD, RD; Jaime J. Gahche, MPH; Paige E. Miller, PhD, RD; Paul R. Thomas, EdD, RD; Johanna T. Dwyer, PhD, RD. Author Affiliations: Office of
From the Cardiac Arrhythmia Service and the Institute for Heart, Vascular, and Stroke Care at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. ... 5 March 2013; 158( 5_Part_1): 338-346. Text Size: Background: Atrial fibrillation ( AF) has been
The introduction of high-field magnetic imaging (3 T) has made noninvasive arterial spin labeling (ASL) a realistic clinical option for perfusion assessment in vascular disorders. Combined with the advances provided by territorial imaging of individual intracerebral arteries and the measurement of vascular reactivity, ASL is a powerful tool for evaluating vascular diseases of the brain. This article evaluates its use in chronic cerebrovascular disease, stroke, moyamoya disease, and arteriovenous malformation, but ASL may also find applications in related diseases such as vasculardementia.
Neuroprotection to attenuate or block the ischemic cascade and salvage neuronal damage has been extensively explored for the treatment of ischemic stroke. In the last two decades, neuroprotective strategy has been evolving from targeting a signal pathway in neurons to protecting all neurovascular components and improving cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interaction that ultimately benefits the brain recovery after ischemic stroke. The progression from potentially reversible to irreversible injury in the ischemic penumbra has provided the opportunity to develop therapies to attenuate the ischemic stroke damage. Thus, the ischemic penumbra has been the main target for the current neuroprotective intervention. However, despite our increasing knowledge of the physiologic, mechanistic, and imaging characterizations of the ischemic penumbra, no effective neuroprotective therapy has been found so far for the treatment of ischemic stroke. The current acute neuroprotective approach
It remains controversial regarding the association between Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene polymorphism and the risk of vasculardementia (VaD). The present meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship. The meta-analysis was performed by searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases. A total of 29 studies included 1763 VaD cases and 4534 controls were identified. The results showed evidence for significant association between ApoE 4 mutation and VaD risk (for 3/4 vs. 3/3: OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.40-1.94, p-value<0.00001; for 4/4 vs. 3/3: OR=3.17, 95% CI=2.09-4.80, p-value<0.00001; for 4 allele vs. 3 allele: OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.40-2.12, p-value<0.00001). The similar results were obtained in the subgroup analysis based on ethnicity. In summary, the present meta-analysis suggests an association between ApoE 4 mutation and increased risk of VaD. However, due to the small sample size in most of the included studies and the
Preventing cognitive impairment and dementia in the elderly is a major public health challenge for our century and all hypotheses should be explored. Selenium (Se) is one of the factors that may affect the risk of cognitive decline. Its importance in the health and aging process has been documented. Because of the potential of selenoproteins to protect against oxidative stress, Se raises significant expectations for the prevention of chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes conditions commonly associated with oxidative stress. Thus, the relationships between Se and cognitive impairment or dementia can be examined through vascular risk factors for dementia, with particular interest in diabetes and dyslipidemia. In addition, in cases of Se deficiency, the brain is the organ that remains Se replete the longest suggesting that Se plays an important role in brain functions. This article presents results obtained in the frame of a longitudinal study on
Dementia is the result of various cerebral disorders, leading to an acquired loss of memory and impaired cognitive ability. The most common forms are Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vasculardementia (VaD). Neurotrophic factors are essential for the survival and differentiation of developing neurons and protecting them against damage under pathologic conditions. Cerebrolysin is a peptide preparation that mimics the pleiotropic effects of neurotrophic factors. Several clinical trials investigating the therapeutic efficacy of Cerebrolysin in AD and VaD have confirmed the proof of concept. The results of these trials have shown statistically significant and clinically relevant treatment effects of Cerebrolysin on cognitive, global and functional domains in mild to moderately severe stages of dementia. Doses of 10 and 30 mL were the most effective, but higher doses of up to 60 mL turned out to be most effective in improving neuropsychiatric symptoms, which become relevant at later stages of
Five Steps to Improving Patient Access Judy Capko, May 21, 2013 Patient access is getting increased attention through reform initiatives. Here are five steps you can take to make sure patients get appropriate access to care in your office.