The goal of this article is to improve recognition of comorbid psychiatric and movement disorders and to help the reader formulate a management strategy using a multidisciplinary approach.
Nocturnal Paroxysmal Dystonia
Although the foundational and antifoundational traditions differ in their language and claims, both call into question the legitimacy of psychiatric diagnosis and treatment.
The degree of asphyxia is best ascertained by measuring the amount of fetal acidosis determined by umbilical arterial blood. An umbilical arterial pH of less than 7.0 is seen in about 0.3% of deliveries.1 It indicates a severity of acidosis that places the fetus at risk for permanent neurological damage because of asphyxia. However, the outcome of infants with umbilical cord pH of less than 7.0 who required neonatal intensive care is relatively good. Eighty-one percent can be expected have a normal examination at discharge.
Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting 1% of people 65 years and older. The core symptoms include the motor manifestations of tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity.
In the 1960s, the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) was revolutionized by the introduction of levodopa. Soon after its discovery, however, it was observed that continuous treatment was complicated by the emergence of choreoathetoid movements and off episodes.
Thus, a young woman describes her ex-boyfriend who had Tourette syndrome (TS), the impact of which caused their breakup. TS affects approximately 1 in 100 Americans and is marked by a fluctuating course of multiple motor and phonic tics, which can have devastating social, physical, and psychological consequences for the patient.
Initial symptoms include personality changes and the gradual appearance of small involuntary movements. These move- ments progress to frank chorea, ballism, and dystonia. Later in the disease course, a bradykinetic parkinsonian phenotype manifests. It is characterized by rigidity, severe dystonia, and contractures. Falls are common. Dysphagia is common as well and is progressive, becoming severe and often contributing to death from aspiration pneumonia.
Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease [PD] are diverse and include sleep disorders, depression, and pain," reported Carlo Colosimo, MD, assistant professor of neurology at La Sapienza University in Rome. He noted that a screening tool is needed.
Novel approaches for the evaluation and symptomatic treatment of Huntington disease (HD) were presented at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology held April 29 to May 5 in Boston. Interventions included use of tetrabenazine (TBZ) (as yet unapproved for the symptomatic treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders in the United States but granted orphan drug status in 2004) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus externus (GPe).
Five words that are guaranteed to annoy your patient
with a diagnosis of psychogenic movement
disorder (PMD) are It's all in your head.
It's the worst thing you can say, said Katie Kompoliti,
MD, associate professor of neurological sciences
at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago.