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Nocturnal Paroxysmal Dystonia

Nocturnal Paroxysmal Dystonia

The goal of this article is to improve recognition of comorbid psychiatric and movement disorders and to help the reader formulate a management strategy using a multidisciplinary approach.

We have argued that both critical traditions are founded on several misapprehensions regarding the nature of disease, the role of values in determining the presence of pathology, and on supposed differences between psychiatry and the other specialties within general medicine.

The degree of asphyxia is best ascertained by measuring the amount of fetal acidosis determined by umbilical arterial blood. An umbilical arterial pH of less than 7.0 is seen in about 0.3% of deliveries.1 It indicates a severity of acidosis that places the fetus at risk for permanent neurological damage because of asphyxia. However, the outcome of infants with umbilical cord pH of less than 7.0 who required neonatal intensive care is relatively good. Eighty-one percent can be expected have a normal examination at discharge.

Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting 1% of people 65 years and older. The core symptoms include the motor manifestations of tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity.

In the 1960s, the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) was revolutionized by the introduction of levodopa. Soon after its discovery, however, it was observed that continuous treatment was complicated by the emergence of choreoathetoid movements and off episodes.

Thus, a young woman describes her ex-boyfriend who had Tourette syndrome (TS), the impact of which caused their breakup. TS affects approximately 1 in 100 Americans and is marked by a fluctuating course of multiple motor and phonic tics, which can have devastating social, physical, and psychological consequences for the patient.

Initial symptoms include personality changes and the gradual appearance of small involuntary movements. These move- ments progress to frank chorea, ballism, and dystonia. Later in the disease course, a bradykinetic parkinsonian phenotype manifests. It is characterized by rigidity, severe dystonia, and contractures. Falls are common. Dysphagia is common as well and is progressive, becoming severe and often contributing to death from aspiration pneumonia.

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