Tardive Dyskinesia: 8-Question Quiz on What We Know


What do we know about TD? What is on the horizon? Take the quiz to learn more.


1. Kane JM, Smith JM. Tardive Dyskinesia Prevalence and Risk Factors, 1959 to 1979. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982;39(4):473-481.

2. Carbon M, Hsieh CH, Kane JM, Correll CU. Tardive Dyskinesia Prevalence in the Period of Second-Generation Antipsychotic Use: A Meta-Analysis. J Clin Psychiatry 2017;78(3):e264-e278.

3 Solmi M, Pigato G, Kane JM, et al. Clinical risk factors for the development of tardive dyskinesia. J Neurol Sci. 2018;389:21-27.

4 Tenback DE, van Harten PN, van Os J. Non-therapeutic risk factors for onset of tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Movement Disord. 2009;24(16):2309-2315.

5 Zai CC, Maes MS, Tiwari AK, et al. Genetics of tardive dyskinesia: Promising leads and ways forward. J Neurol Sci. 2018;389:28-34.

6 Zai CC, Lee FH, Tiwari AK, et al. Investigation of the HSPG2 Gene in Tardive Dyskinesia – New Data and Meta-Analysis. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:974.

7. Bakker PR, van Harten PN, van Os J. Antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and polymorphic variations in COMT, DRD2, CYP1A2, and MnSOD genes: a meta-analysis of pharmacogenetic interactions. Mol Psychiatry. 2008;13:544-556.

8. Patsopoulos NA, Ntzani EE, Zintzaras E, et al. CYP2D6 polymorphisms and the risk of tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2005;15:151-158.

9. The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline for The Treatment of Patients With Schizophrenia, Third Edition. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890424841

10. Bergman H, Bhoopathi PS, Soares-Weiser K. Anticholinergic medication for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jan 20;1(1):CD000205.

11. El-Sayeh HG, Rathbone J, Soares-Weiser K, Bergman H. Non-antipsychotic catecholaminergic drugs for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;1(1):CD000458.

12. Soares-Weiser K, Maayan N, Bergman H. Vitamin E for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;1(1):CD000209

13. Soares-Weiser K, Rathbone J, Ogawa Y, et al. Miscellaneous treatments for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 19;3:CD000208.

14. Ad1elufosi AO, Abayomi O, Ojo TM. Pyridoxal 5 phosphate for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Apr 13;(4):CD010501.

15. Kane JM, Smith JM. Tardive dyskinesia prevalence and risk factors, 1959 to 1979. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982;39:473-481.

16. Caroff SN, Leong SH, Roberts C, et al. Cumulative Burden of Illness in Veterans With Tardive Dyskinesia and Serious Mental Disorders. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2020;40:38-45.

17. Carroll B, Irwin DE. Health Care Resource Utilization and Costs for Patients with Tardive Dyskinesia. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2019;25:810-816.

18. Guy W. ECDEU assessment manual for psychopharmacology: revised. DHEW Publication No. ADM 76-338. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, NIMH Psychopharmacology Research Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs; 1976: 534-537.

19. Chouinard G, Ross-Chouinard A, Annable L, Jones B. The extrapyramidal symptom rating scale. Can J Neurol Sci. 1980;7(3):233.

20. Kalachnik JE, Sprague RL. The dyskinesia Identification System Condensed User Scale (DISCUS): reliability, validity, and a total score cut-off for mentally ill and mentally retarded populations. J Clin Psychol. 1993;49(2):177-189.

21. Casey DE. Tardive dyskinesia: pathophysiology and animal models. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(Suppl.)4:5-9.

22. Margolese HC, Chouinard G, Kolivakis TT, et al. Tardive dyskinesia in the era of typical and atypical antipsychotics. Part 1: pathophysiology and mechanisms of induction. Can J Psychiatry. 2005;50:541-547.

23. Blanchet PJ, Parent M-T, Rompre PH, Levesque D. Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia. Behav Brain Funct. 2012;8:12.

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