Neurotransmitters may enhance mood-boosting effectS of exercise, cigarette use abstinence efforts going up in smoke, and other recent findings are summarized here.
Neurotransmitters may enhance exercise’s mood-boosting effect, cigarette use abstinence efforts going up in smoke, unhealthy diet boosts depression in youth-these are some of the latest findings in major depressive disorder (MDD) research. Scroll through the slides above to find concise summaries of key points.
The endocannabinoid system may contribute to the mood-enhancing effects of prescribed acute exercise for women with MDD. There were significant elevations in anandamide (AEA) and oleoylethanolamine for women who exercised in a prescribed moderate (MOD) session and significant moderate negative associations between changes in AEA and mood states for MOD at 10 min (depression, confusion, fatigue, total mood disturbance [TMD], and state anxiety) and 30 min postexercise (confusion, TMD, and state anxiety). Significant moderate negative associations were found between 2-arachidonoylglycerol and mood states at 10 min (depression and confusion) and 30 min postexercise (confusion and TMD).
Depression and substance use appear to be increasing among former US smokers and adding to the risk of cigarette use relapse. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health gathered data from former smokers (≥100 lifetime cigarettes and no past-year cigarettes) aged ≥18 years. Among them, the prevalence of major depression increased from 4.88% to 6.04% (2005 to 2016) and past-year marijuana use and past-month binge alcohol use increased from 5.35% to 10.09% and 17.22% to 22.33%, respectively (both 2002 to 2016); the prevalence of past-year alcohol abuse or dependence did not change.
Sodium and potassium intake are important in the development of adolescent depression, according to the first study to demonstrate relationships between objective indicators of unhealthy diet and subsequent changes in depressive symptoms in youth. Among urban, mostly African American adolescents, higher overnight sodium and lower potassium excretion rates predicted more frequent depressive symptoms reported 1.5 years later. Reducing sodiumârich foods and increasing those rich in potassium may help reduce the prevalence of adolescent depression.
Cat owners often are viewed as being depressed or anxious or having difficulty with human relationships, but it’s not so, says a study of pet owners’ ratings of the valence of animal distress vocalizations. Cat- and dog-owning adults were not significantly different from adults who had no pets on symptoms of depression or anxiety or on self-reported interpersonal relationship functioning. Cat and dog owners were more sensitive than non–pet owners to negative emotion in cat and dog vocalizations and rated them as sadder than adults who did not own a pet.
The odds of having clinically relevant depressive symptoms may be reduced with consumption of chocolate, especially dark chocolate. Among 13,626 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, significantly lower odds of clinically relevant depressive symptoms were observed in those who reported consuming dark chocolate. After adjusting for dark chocolate consumption, the odds of depressive symptoms were 57% lower in those reporting chocolate consumption in the highest quartile (104–454 g/d) than in those reporting no chocolate consumption.
High diabetes distress levels were associated with lower diabetes quality of life and severe depression for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) in a university population. High diabetes distress was reported by 27.4% and 30.7% of T1DM and T2DM participants, respectively; 17.0% and 18.8% of T1DM and T2DM participants, respectively, screened positive for severe depression. The findings suggest that attending or working at a university may be associated with high diabetes distress scores and lower diabetes quality of life.
Lithium may be efficient and well-tolerated in older adults who have treatment-resistant MDD or bipolar disorder. In a study that used data from the Cohort of individuals with Schizophrenia and mood disorders Aged 55 years or more (CSA), lithium use was associated with lower intensity of depressive symptoms, reduced perceived clinical global severity, and lower benzodiazepine use. Lithium was not linked to greater rates of medical comorbidities other than hypothyroidism.