A limited number of back issues of Psychiatric Issues in Emergency Care Settings are available. Each issue is focused on a specific topic of interest to clinicians working in emergency department and psychiatric emergency service settings. Please use the coupon below to order the issues. Cost is $10 per copy, including shipping within the United States.
Psychiatric Price of Steroid AbuseFebruary 1st 2006
Anabolic steroids have gone from an appropriate treatment for men with hypogonadism to an agent abused by athletes, bodybuilders, adolescents, and young adults. Use of steroids at levels 10 to 100 times those of therapeutic dosages can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as aggression, mania, depression, and psychosis. Steroid abusers often "stack" several steroids or "pyramid" agents through a 4- to 12-week cycle. Presenting complaints of steroid abusers include muscle spasms, dizziness, frequent urination, and menstrual abnormalities. Signs may include high blood pressure, needle marks, icteric eyes, muscle hypertrophy, and edema; testicular atrophy and gynecomastia in men; and hirsutism and atrophied breasts in women. Mood changes can occur within a week of first use, and body changes may occur after acute behavioral disturbances.
PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS SIGNAL AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERSFebruary 1st 2006
Psychiatric symptoms are not uncommon in patients with autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren syndrome, temporal arteritis, sarcoidosis, scleroderma, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and myasthenia gravis. The CNS is frequently involved with many of these disorders. The lifetime risk of depression in patients with MS is 50.3%, with demyelination, inflammation, and neuroendocrine response implicated. In patients with MS of 10 years' duration, 56% may show cognitive decline. Included in the diagnostic criteria for SLE are seizures and psychosis, including visual hallucinations and paranoia. Cognitive impairment can occur in 79% of patients with SLE. Cognitive dysfunction is also seen in patients with Sjögren syndrome.
Evaluating for Alcohol and Substance AbuseFebruary 1st 2006
Alcohol and substance use disorders take a tremendous toll on society as a whole and also require significant emergency department (ED) resources. Alcohol use and abuse in the United States accounts for over 100,000 deaths each year1 and costs more than $185 billion annually.2 A study of the effects of alcohol-related disease and injuries found that the number of patients who presented with these conditions increased by 18% from 1992 to 2000.3
Can you give our staff some guidance on the appropriate use of critical incident stress debriefing and psychological first aid?February 1st 2006
Psychological debriefing was developed as a way to intervene with large numbers of trauma survivors in circumstances in which individual evaluation and treatment are not possible, such as after mass trauma, terrorist attacks, or disasters. The most commonly used model of debriefing is Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD), a structured protocol developed by Mitchell.1 CISD has been used quite frequently with rescuers, first responders, and law enforcement personnel. After the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, CISD was widely applied to groups of persons who were affected by the attacks.
Are benzodiazepines appropriate to prescribe for survivors and others after an incidence of mass trauma?February 1st 2006
The use of benzodiazepines in psychiatry and general medicine is fraught with controversy because of the potential for abuse and dependence. In daily practice, clinicians vary widely in their comfort level with prescribing this class of medications, whether for short-term relief of panic or for long-term prophylaxis of generalized anxiety. The use of benzodiazepines in acutely traumatized persons is particularly controversial.
Dual Diagnosis: A Challenge for ED CliniciansFebruary 1st 2006
Assessment and management of dual diagnosis--that is, the comorbidity of substance use disorder in persons with mental illness--is a major challenge for clinicians, especially in the emergency department (ED). It is widely accepted, but perhaps less well appreciated in the clinical realm, that substance abuse comorbidity is more the rule than the exception in persons with serious mental illness.
Substance Use Disorders in the Emergency SettingFebruary 1st 2006
Proper evaluation of patients for alcohol and substance use disorders is usually time-consuming. When done in a busy emergency department (ED), assessment is often rushed, increasing the likelihood of misdiagnosis and, therefore, mismanagement. Because the evaluation is a patient's first step to effective therapy, it should be conducted as efficiently and effectively as possible.
Alcohol and Drug Abuse Intervention in the Emergency Department: A Step Toward RecoveryFebruary 1st 2006
If done properly, the assessment of alcohol and substance use disorders in the emergency department (ED) or psychiatric emergency service can be the first step toward recovery. A proper assessment, however, can be extremely taxing for both the clinician and the patient. This article offers a paradigm for performing a rapid and comprehensive evaluation in the ED of medically stable adults with alcohol and substance use disorders.