Is inflammation a cause or consequence of illness in schizophrenia?
View the information in PDF format.
1. Miller BJ, Goldsmith DR. Towards a schizophrenia immunophenotype: progress, potential mechansisms, and future directions. Neuropsychopharmacology Rev. 2016 Oct 19. doi: 10.1038/npp.2016.211. [Epub ahead of print]
2. Khandaker GM, Pearson RM, Zammit S, et al. Association of serum interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein in childhood with depression and psychosis in young adult life: a population-based longitudinal study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71:1121-1128.
3. Metcalf SA, Jones PB, Nordstrom T, et al. Serum C-reactive protein in adolescence and risk of schizophrenia in adulthood: a prospective birth cohort study. Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Sep 10. pii: S0889-1591(16)30417-2. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.09.008. [Epub ahead of print]
It is difficult to ascertain the direction of association between inflammation and schizophrenia from cross-sectional data. However, a recent cohort study gets us closer to the answers. View the information in PDF format.